【3月热词】黑人演什么才能获得奥斯卡青睐 The Oscar Nominations

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【每月热词】 3月热词:黑人演什么才能获得奥斯卡青睐 The Oscar Nominations

 

When the Oscar nominations were announced last month, revealing that not one black actor was in the running, the resulting furor touched on the performances that critics said should have been considered: What about Idris Elba in “Beasts of No Nation”? Michael B. Jordan in “Creed”? Will Smith in “Concussion,” or one of the stars of “Straight Outta Compton”?

 

上个月,奥斯卡提名公布,没有一位黑人演员获得提名,引发强烈抗议,人们纷纷谈论影评家们认为应该予以考虑的演员:比如《无境之兽》(Beasts of No Nation)中的伊德瑞斯·艾尔巴(Idris Elba);《奎迪》(Creed)中的迈克尔·B·乔丹(Michael B. Jordan);《震荡效应》(Concussion)中的威尔·史密斯(Will Smith);又或者《冲出康普顿》(Straight Outta Compton)中的其中一位明星。

 

nomination:提名

reveal:透露,暴露

furor:抗议浪潮,公愤

 

The uproar over #Oscars So White# made me curious. What does the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences value in black performance? Black artists have been nominated for best actress or actor on 30 occasions, for work spanning 28 films. Over the last few weeks, I watched all of them.

 

#Oscars So White#抗议活动的喧闹让我很好奇:美国电影艺术和科学学会(Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences)是如何评价黑人演员的表演的呢?黑人艺术家凭借28部影片在30个奖项中获得最佳女演员或男演员提名。在过去几周里,我观看了所有这些影片。

 

uproar:喧闹,骚动

 

These are movies with a lot in common, not least that most were written and directed by white men. Only three were written and directed by black men. None were directed by women. Perhaps these numbers aren’t surprising, given the well-known demographics of the film industry. Other numbers are more eye-opening.

 

这些影片有很多共通之处,相当重要的一点是,这些电影的编剧和导演大多是白人。只有3部的编剧和导演是黑人。没有一部是女性导演的。这些数字可能并不令人意外,因为大家都清楚电影业的人口构成。其他一些发现更令人吃惊。

 

demographic:人口统计学的

eye-opening:令人大开眼界的

 

Consider: In the history of the Oscars, 10 black women have been nominated for best actress, and nine of them played characters who are homeless or might soon become so. (The exception is Viola Davis, for the 2011 drama “The Help.”)

 

那就是:在奥斯卡历史上,有10名黑人女性获得最佳女演员提名,其中9名饰演的是无家可归或很快就要无家可归的角色(唯一的例外是维奥拉·戴维斯[Viola Davis]2011年影片《相助》[The Help]中饰演的角色)。

 

Nearly every black best-actress nominee has faced a similar plight, right up through “Beasts of the Southern Wild” (2012), in which Quvenzhané Wallis played a little girl about to lose her home to a flood. No black woman has ever received a best-actress nomination for portraying an executive or even a character with a college degree. (Though Gabourey Sidibe’s character in “Precious,” from 2009, seems likely to get one eventually.)

 

几乎每位获得最佳女演员提名的黑人女演员在片中都处于类似的窘况,一直到2012年的《南国野兽》(Beasts of the Southern Wild),奎文赞妮·瓦利斯(Quvenzhané Wallis)在片中饰演一个即将因洪水失去家园的小女孩。从没有一位黑人女性因饰演高管或者哪怕是拥有大学学位的角色而获得最佳女演员提名(虽然加布蕾·丝迪贝[Gabourey Sidibe]2009年影片《珍爱》[Precious]中饰演的角色似乎很可能最终获得学位)。

 

plight:险境,困境

portray:描述,刻画

 

A few more commonalities to note: Seven of the 10 best-actress nominees played characters with absent or incarcerated husbands, boyfriends, or fathers. And six of the characters suffer physical abuse, with five of them being raped.

 

还有其他一些共同之处:这10个角色中有7个没有丈夫、男友或父亲(或者在狱中)。其中6个曾遭受暴力虐待,有5个曾遭强奸。

 

incarcerate:监禁,关押

 

The academy has tended to honor black men for different sorts of roles, and it has honored them more often. Black men have been up for best actor 20 times, with four nominations going to Denzel Washington, three to Morgan Freeman, and two each to Sidney Poitier and Mr. Smith.

 

奥斯卡似乎更青睐黑人男演员饰演的各种角色,而且更经常给予他们荣誉。黑人男演员共获得20次最佳男演员提名,其中,丹泽尔·华盛顿(Denzel Washington)4次获得提名,摩根·弗里曼(Morgan Freeman)3次获得提名,西德尼·波蒂埃(Sidney Poitier)和威尔·史密斯各获2次提名。

 

I shared these numbers with Dr. Todd Boyd, the author and professor of critical studies at the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts. He wasn’t impressed, but he also said the focus on the Oscars was misplaced. “The Oscars are a symptom,” he said, and not the illness itself.

 

我把这些发现分享给南加州大学(University of Southern California)电影艺术学院(School of Cinematic Arts)的批评研究教授兼作家托德·博伊德博士(Todd Boyd)。他没有感到震惊,不过他也说把焦点放到奥斯卡身上不合适。他说:“奥斯卡只是症状”,不是疾病本身。

 

symptom:症状

 

The academy president, Cheryl Boone Isaacs, in announcing changes intended to address #Oscars So White#, cited the film industry’s failure to produce movies with diverse casts, and Dr. Boyd made a similar point: “You have to backtrack and look at the kinds of movies that African-Americans have been cast in.”

 

电影艺术和科学学会主席谢丽尔·博恩·伊萨克(Cheryl Boone Isaacs)在宣布针对#Oscars So White#做出的改变时,提到电影业没有制作选角多样的电影是根本原因。博伊德也表达了类似的观点:“你必须回溯和研究非裔美国人演的那种电影。”

 

intend to do:计划,打算做

 

These 28 films are full of enormous characters, men and women of world-historic or pop-cultural significance, people who face seemingly intolerable oppression with nigh-unimaginable resolve, characters who are victimized or who encounter and occasionally inflict cruelty.

 

28部影片充满各种人物,讲述的是具有世界历史意义或流行文化意义的男女,他们以不可思议的决心面对似乎难以忍受的压迫,他们受到迫害或残酷对待,有时他们也残酷地对待别人。

 

oppression:压迫,镇压

victimize:使受害,使牺牲

encounter:遇到(困难或敌对的事),面临

inflict:使遭受(不快,痛苦)

cruelty:残忍,残暴

 

These are largely isolated characters, said Dr. Miriam J. Petty, an assistant professor in the department of radio, television and film at Northwestern University. “And they’re bound to the destinies of the white people with whom they appear in these films.”

 

西北大学(Northwestern University)的电台、电视和电影系助理教授米利娅姆·J·佩蒂博士(Miriam J. Petty)说,这些角色大多很孤独,“他们与影片中出现的白人的命运紧密联系在一起”。

 

It is not entirely surprising that so many of these nominees have portrayed the poor, imprisoned, great or tragic. The history of African-Americans contains many such people, and the academy loves history. Of the 10 most recent best-actor nominees, eight played historical figures. But the academy has never nominated a black leading actor for a role like Woody Grant in “Nebraska” (for which Bruce Dern was nominated in 2014) — an idiosyncratic person who is both fictional and unexceptional.

 

这么多获得提名的演员都是演绎伟大或悲惨的穷人和犯人,这并不完全出人意料。非裔美国人的历史上有很多这样的人物,而奥斯卡很喜欢历史。最近获得最佳男演员提名的10位演员中有8位是饰演历史人物。但是,在奥斯卡提名过的黑人男主角中,没有一位是《内布拉斯加》(Nebraska2014年,布鲁斯·德恩[Bruce Dern]凭借在此片中的表演获得提名)中伍迪·格兰特(Woody Grant)这样的角色——这个角色很独特,但同时也是一个虚构的普通人。

 

nominee:被提名者,被任命者

imprison:监禁,关押

idiosyncratic:特殊的,独特的

unexceptional:非例外的,平常的

 

If you had a film about an ordinary black guy — well, that might mean that he knows other black people,” Dr. Petty said. “Those black people might need to be in the movie, too. And then it’s a black film.”

 

“如果一部影片讲述的是一个普通黑人——呃,那可能意味着他认识其他黑人,”佩蒂说,“那些黑人可能也需要出现在影片中。然后它就变成一部完全是关于黑人的影片。”


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何曼婷

何曼婷

Mandy,英语教育专业毕业,英语专业八级,拥有高级口译证书。口译项目明星讲师,擅长教授中高级口译、新概念课程。长期参与中高级口译教研工作,编写昂立外语口译模考试题,参与阅卷工作,教研能力出众。在课堂上注重知识点的灵活运用,帮助学生串联所学知识点,融会贯通,达到良好的学习效果。授课风格深入浅出,善于总结考试技巧,提升学习效果。在校期间多次参加英语演讲和辩论赛,拥有丰富演讲和辩论经验,连续数年获得奖学金、优秀学生等荣誉称号。座右铭:Great hopes make great man.

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